The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i.
However, for posters or projected images, where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Top of Page How to number Tables and Figures: Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis.
Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the document and be consistent throughout the document. This baseline is defined in the legend.
If each point in the series is obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values e. Parts of a Graph: The "Acid Test" for Tables and Figures: Note in this example that: Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of a drug or treatment.
For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on their own pages.
Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. Some general considerations about Figures: Much of the results are also reported in the legends.
Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. The legend of the compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Top of Page Frequency Histogram Frequency histograms also called frequency distributions are bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable.
Setting the bin size at 0. The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to read 50, rather than 48, 96, Which variable goes on the X axis? Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying. Error bars or not?
Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text. Compound figures may require a full page.
Figures and Tables are numbered independently, in the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the flow of text.
No minor intervals would be used in this case. Use the same font as the body text. Do not simply restate the axis labels with a "versus" written in between.
Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units i.
In this example notice that: Symbols are large enough to be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in the legend. Color or no color? In most cases units are given here as well see next example ; the categorical variable habitat is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable year within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color.
The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a "relationship", i.For any scientist, knowing how to format a table is an essential skill for writing any research paper.
Most word processing programs allow you to create tables easily, and you can import or cut and paste tables from spreadsheet applications very easily.
Placement of Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the next page).
Making Journal-Quality Tables (and other useful hints!) Presented by the CFDR Instructor: Meredith Porter end of your paper. Insert a note in the text to indicate page. "Table" is followed by a space, the table number, and a period.
This is followed by two spaces and then the title of the table, with initial. Selection criteria for most tables also include the minimum number of cases of breast cancer or participants for the studies in the table.
When all else is equal, a larger number of people in a study means the study is better able to answer research questions. But while well-presented tables and figures in research papers can efficiently capture and present information, poorly crafted tables and figures can confuse readers and impair the effectiveness of a paper.
16 To help authors get the balance right, this article presents some essential guidelines to the effective use of tables and figures in. An APA research paper and MLA research paper both require tables and figures, but the rules around them are different. Using tables and figures in research papers is essential for the paper’s readability.
publishers, editors, and students to learn and share their experience about research and publishing. Enago Academy also conducts.Download