The variants here — as in the host of applied subjects — are broad ranging: For example, the deserving are those who have historically been persecuted. Industrialization and the Modern Era[ edit ] The Marxist critique of capitalism—developed with Friedrich Engels —was, alongside liberalism and fascism, one of the defining ideological movements of the twentieth century.
Max Stirner, for example, rejects any kind of limitation on the action of the individual, including social structures that may evolve spontaneously — for example, parental authority, money, legal institutions for example, common lawand property rights; Proudhon, on the other hand, argues for a society of small enterprising co-operatives.
Most of these took elements of Marxist economic analysis, but combined them with a more cultural or ideological emphasis. Translated from the original, with Dissertations and Notes in Two Volumes. The need to redeploy public power in order to maintain the survival and enhance the quality of human life, for example, has never been so essential.
All other claims, including the evaluative assertions made by traditional political and ethical philosophers, are literally meaningless, hence not worth discussing. Some conservatives argue that a modicum of redistribution is required to ensure a peaceful non-revolutionary society.
Conservatives thus applaud those institutions that check the propensity for the stronger or the megalomaniacal to command power: Nussbaum has argued that every inhabitant of the globe is entitled to the conditions that enable one to attain a decent and objectively worthwhile and valuable quality of life.
Although neither Machiavelli nor Hobbes believed in the divine right of kings, they both believed in the inherent selfishness of the individual.
Philosophy can define the moral point of view, but it cannot dictate or predict what rational persons would agree to in an ideal discussion aimed at truth.
We must be ready to fight it because it blurs the clear separation of classes.
After Voltaire, religion would never be the same again in France. But he was skeptical of any attempt to argue that one political regime or set of practices is morally superior to another.
This condition cannot be met by utilitarianismbecause that ethical theory would countenance forms of government in which the greater happiness of a majority is achieved by neglecting the rights and interests of a minority.
The most spirited and sophisticated presentation of the libertarian critique was Anarchy, State, and Utopiaby the American philosopher Robert Nozick — Plato BC The Statesman In the Republic, Plato suggests that ruling is a kind of science or craft and concludes that only those trained in this craft should be permitted to govern.
These may then act to direct the general economy along politically desirable roads: Thomas Hobbeswell known for his theory of the social contractgoes on to expand this view at the start of the 17th century during the English Renaissance.
Often described as a Hobbesian, Spinoza differs in important respects from his English predecessor.
But what is philosophically more important is that the liberal doctrine of toleration permits the acceptance of errors — that in pursuing the ethical good life and hence the appropriate political life, people may make mistakes and should be permitted to learn and adapt as they see fit; or, alternatively, that people have a right to live in ignorance or to pursue knowledge as they think best.
He regarded this demonstration as a refutation of anarchismthe doctrine that the state is inherently unjustified. In the broadest, presently popularly accepted term the modern liberal accepts rights against the person and rights to entitlements such as health care and education.
He does focus on republics, ancient and modern, but he also discusses monarchies or princedoms. Waste of time and money. According to this view, the aim of democratic politics should be to generate a conversation that leads to a rational consensus about the common good.
Accordingly, Plato replaces the communal living arrangements of the Republic with private property and permits citizens a voice in the management of public affairs. Environmentalists theoretically can differ on what political-economic system can best fit their demands, but one advocate Stewart Brand writing in The Whole Earth Catalogue argues that people should return to a "Stone Age, where we might live like Indians in our valley, with our localism, our appropriate technology, our gardens, our homemade religion.
Other documents similar to Magna Carta are found in other European countries such as Spain and Hungary. The Situationists were more influenced by Hegel; Guy Debordin particular, moved a Marxist analysis of commodity fetishism to the realm of consumption, and looked at the relation between consumerism and dominant ideology formation.
Cicero Statesman, orator, and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero became the most widely read and admired Roman author following the recovery of his major works during the Renaissance. In the aftermath of these catastrophes and the worldwide revulsion they occasioned, not least against the European colonial powers, various mainstreams of 20th-century political philosophy may be discerned.
If socialists depart from such intricacies they can assert that capitalism is morally flawed at its core — say, from its motivational or ethical underpinnings. The central issue for environmentalists and their animal rights supporting brethren is to explain the moral relationship between human and beast and the resulting asymmetrical justifications and judgments leveled against humanity: That work, as well as The Discoursesa rigorous analysis of the classical perioddid much to influence modern political thought in the West.
Burns and Oates, Urbanization and capitalism greatly reshaped society.The main issues sociopolitical analysis seeks to understand are: the interests and incentives facing different groups (particularly political elites), and how these influence politics, policies, and efforts to promote development; how formal institutions (e.g.
rule of law, elections) and informal social, political and cultural norms interact. Chinese political philosophy was developed as a response to the social and political breakdown of the country characteristic of the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period.
The major philosophies during the period, Confucianism, Legalism, Mohism, Agrarianism and Taoism, each had a political aspect to their philosophical.
Political Philosophy: Methodology. Political philosophy begins with the question: what ought to be a person's relationship to society? The key question that divides political philosophers returns to whether it is the group or the individual that should be the political unit of analysis.
Its political meaning is a social and political. Political & Social Philosophy. Political & Social Philosophy Answer a question of your own devising, which compares the views on social and political philosophy of any two of the following philosophers: Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, Mill.
Western political philosophy from the start of the 20th century. Political philosophers responded to these developments in diverse ways.
Perhaps the most innovative philosophical response to social and political oppression was developed by contemporary feminists seeking to address the domination of women by men. The history of.
Lists of other social and political philosophers. List of Confucianists; List of critical theorists; List of Existentialists; List of political philosophers.Download